A critical review of the treatment options available for obstructive sleep apnoea: an overview of the current literature available on treatment methods for obstructive sleep apnoea and future research directions
Alessandra J. Booth
10 May 2014
6 Nov 2014
3 Dec 2014
pharmacotherapy, sleep-disordered breathing, cardiovascular diseases, critical, surgery, mandibular advancement splints
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a leading yet often undiagnosed cause of daytime sleepiness. It affects between 3 and 7% of the adult population, and the prevalence is expected to increase due to the obesity epidemic and ageing population. OSA is a sleep-related breathing disorder in which the airway completely (apnoea) or partly closes (hypopnea) during sleep at the end of expiration. This can lead to decreases in blood oxygen saturation and sleep fragmentation. Those who suffer with OSA are often unaware of their symptoms. Severe, untreated OSA can have serious implications such as an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, motor vehicle accidents, poor neurocognitive performance and increased mortality. Many patients are prescribed continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as a treatment, but compliance with CPAP is often low. We briefly review the diagnosis and prognosis for obstructive sleep apnoea. But the main focus of our review is the critical evaluation of the numerous treatment strategies available for sleep apnoea as a multi-comorbid and multi-factorial condition. We also highlight areas that need further research.